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📰 “Cold-blooded” vertebrates teach a lesson in slowing aging

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An unprecedented study published in the journal Science by an international team of 114 scientists has just lifted the veil on the aging of ectotherms. Using reptiles and amphibians as study models, the researchers showed that these organisms show great variability in their own speed (We stand out 🙂 from aging (The notion of aging describes one or more decreasing functional changes …) and that many species (salamanders, turtles) show a very slow aging. For the first time, they explored the mechanisms responsible for the large variability in longevity (The longevity of a living being is the lifespan for which it is …) and aging rates in these animals.


Pond turtleEurope (Europe is a land region that can be considered a …) (Emys orbicularis), one of the reptile species considered in the study by Reinke et al. and showing a negligible aging rate. Credit: Matthieu Berroneau

Do all animals age at the same rate? Do any of them manage to escape aging? What are the biological traits that explain the variations in the intensity of aging between species? There are many questions that have aroused the interest of men since ancient times, and for which the answers have tended to take shape in recent years.

At 190 years old, Jonathan, the Giant Seychelles tortoise (The Seychelles giant tortoise (Geochelone gigantea) is a species of tortoise …)became known as “theanimal (An animal (from the Latin animus, spirit, or vital principle) is, according to the classical classification, a …) oldest living terrestrial world (The word world can refer to 🙂“. Furthermore, measurements made in salamanders have raised suspicion of remarkable longevity, coupled with surprising anti-aging properties (eg tissue regeneration). However, our knowledge on the aging of ectothermic tetrapods (amphibians and reptiles) has long been limited. to these Comments (Observation is the action of a careful following of phenomena, without the will to see them …)as intriguing as they are anecdotal.


Spotted salamander (Salamandra salamandra), one of the amphibian species considered in the study by Reinke et al. and showing a negligible aging rate. Credits: Matthieu Berroneau

A study of unprecedented scope, based on the compilation and analysis of data (In information technology (IT), data is an elementary description, often …) Long-term demographics collected from 107 natural populations of 77 reptile and amphibian species around the world have just lifted the veil on the aging of ectotherms. This comparative analysis published in the journal Science by an international team of 114 scientists is the most detailed study to date. day (The day or day is the interval between sunrise and sunset; it is the …) on the aging and longevity of ectothermic tetrapods in natural populations.

The researchers found that amphibians and reptiles exhibit greater variability in aging rates (measured using age-dependent mortality models) than that seen in birds and mammals. Additionally, this study reveals that turtles, crocodiles, and salamanders have particularly low aging rates and lifespans. life (Life is the name given 🙂 surprisingly long for their body size.

Worryingly, the team observed negligible aging in at least one species (In the life sciences, the species (from the Latin species, “type” …) of each of the main groups of ectothermic tetrapods considered in the study. Some clades such as salamanders and turtles had a Quantity (Quantity is a generic term of metrology (account, amount); a scalar, …) significant number of species with negligible aging. It seems strange to say that they don’t age everything (The whole understood as the whole of what exists is often interpreted as the world or …)but basically theirs chance (Probability (from the Latin probabilitas) is an evaluation of the probable character of a …) dying does not change with age once these organisms have performed their first reproduction.


Asp viper (Vipera aspis), one of the reptile species considered in the study by Reinke et al. Credits: Matthieu Berroneau

This finding challenges the idea that the increase in mortality with age, observed in most endotherms and in humans, would be an inevitable phenomenon in vertebrates (Vertebrates form a subdivision of the animal kingdom. This taxon, which in its …) in general. These results indicate that ectothermic tetrapods exhibit original aging processes, very different from those of endothermic ones, from which they differ in terms of environmental sensitivity, metabolism (Metabolism is the set of molecular and energetic transformations …)and the diversity of traits in the history of life.

The researchers also sought to explain the causes of the variations in longevity and intensity of aging in ectothermic tetrapods. They wanted to test some theories of aging to see if these were valid in reptiles and amphibians. If we can understand how certain animals manage to slow down their aging, we will understand that of humans better.

The consortium showed that species with physical (carapace, scale) and chemical (poison, poison) protective phenotypes exhibit slower aging and greater longevity. Furthermore, species with early reproduction and / or high fecundity undergo accelerated aging. Finally, the study suggests that the type of metabolism (ectothermia versus endothermy) is not a critical determinant of changes in the intensity of aging in vertebrates, contrary to what has been claimed for some time.

This study constitutes the first large-scale analysis of the aging of ectotherms. Prove that the speed of this phenomenon is a lot variable (In mathematics and logic, a variable is represented by a symbol. It …) between species and that some organisms show negligible aging. Ultimately, these findings could shed light on future biomedical research on human aging as well Health (Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and it is not …).


Komodo monitor lizard (Varanus komodoensis), one of the reptile species considered in the study by Reinke et al. Credits: Matthieu Berroneau


Cultivated (Pelobates cultripes), one of the amphibian species considered in the study by Reinke et al. Credits: Matthieu Berroneau

The CNRS laboratories involved:

– Biometrics Laboratory e Biology (Biology, commonly called “bio”, is the science of life ….) Scalable (LBBE – CNRS / University (A university is a higher education institution whose goal is the …) of Lyon / VetAgro Sup)
– Center for Biological Studies of Chizé (CEBC – CNRS / La Rochelle University)
– Center of Research (Scientific research primarily refers to all actions undertaken with a view to …) in ecology experimental (In art, these are creative approaches based on questioning dogmas …) and predictive (CEREEP – CNRS / ENS)
Institute (An institution is a permanent organization created for a specific purpose. It is …) ecology and scienceenvironment (The environment is everything that surrounds us. They are all natural elements and …) from Paris (Paris is a French city, capital of France and capital of the region …) (IEES – CNRS / IRD / Sorbonne (The Sorbonne is a monumental complex in the Latin Quarter of Paris. It takes its name from …) University / Paris-East Crete University Val-de-Marne (University Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne (UPEC, official name: Paris-XII), …) / INRAE)
– Laboratory of Ecology of Natural and Anthropized Hydrosystems (LEHNA – CNRS / ENTPE / Claude Bernard University)
– Center of ecology functional (In mathematics, the term functional refers to certain functions ….) and scalable (CEFE – CNRS / IRD / University of Montpellier (The University of Montpellier was an educational institution …) / EPHE)
– Theoretical and Experimental Ecology Station (SETE – CNRS)
– Ecoanthropology (EA – CNRS / MNHN)

Reference:
Reinke BA, Cayuela H, Janzen FJ, Lemaître JF, Gaillard JM, Lawing AM, Iverson JB, Christiansen DG, Martínez-Solano I, Sánchez-Montes G, Gutiérrez-Rodríguez J, Rose FL, Nelson N, Keall S, Crivelli AJ , Nazirides T, Grimm-Seyfarth A, Henle K, He died (Places or municipality Mori is an Italian municipality located in the autonomous province of …) E, Guiller G, Homan R, Olivier A, Muths E, Hossack BR, Bonnet X, Pilliod DS, Lettink M, Whitaker T, Schmidt BR, Gardner MG, Cheylan M, Poitevin F, Golubović A, Tomović L, Arsovski D, Griffiths RA, Arntzen JW, Baron JP, Le Galliard JF, Tully T, Luiselli L, Capula M, Rugiero L, McCaffery R, ​​Eby LA, Briggs-Gonzalez V, Mazzotti F, Pearson D, Lambert BA, Green DM, Jreidini N, Angelini C, Pyke G, Thirion JM, Joly P, Léna JP, Tucker AD, Limpus C, Priol P, Besnard A, Bernard P, Stanford K, King R, Garwood J, Bosch J, Souza FL, Bertoluci J , Famelli S, Grossenbacher K, Lenzi O, Matthews K, Boitaud S, Olson DH, Jessop TS, Gillespie GR, Clobert J, Richard M, Valenzuela-Sánchez A, Fellers GM, Kleeman PM, Halstead BJ, Grant EHC, Byrne PG , Frétey T, Le Garff B, Levionnois P, Maerz JC, Pichenot J, Olgun K, Üzüm N, Avcı A, Miaud C, Elmberg J, Brown GP, ​​Shine R, Bendik NF, O’Donnell L, Davis CL , Lannoo MJ, Stiles RM, Cox RM, Reedy AM, Warner DA, Bonnaire E, Grayson K, Ramos-Targarona R, Baskale E, Muñoz D, Measey J, de Villiers FA, Selman W, Ronget V, Bronikowski AM, Miller DAW.
The different rates of aging in ectothermic tetrapods provide information on the evolution of aging and longevity.
Science. 2022 Jun 24; 376 (6600): 1459-1466. doi: 10.1126 / science.abm0151. Epub 2022 Jun 23. PMID: 35737773.

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